Ástandsstúlkan sem vandræðaunglingur: Löggæsla, vernd og eftirlit í ástandinu
Viðbrögð íslenska ríkisins við ástandinu svokallaða á árum seinni heimsstyrjaldarinnar hafa verið sett í ýmiss konar samhengi af fræðimönnum á undanförnum árum og áratugum. Í þessari grein eru aðgerðir ríkisins skoðaðar í ljósi barnaverndar en hluti þeirra kvenna sem taldar voru eiga í of nánum samskiptum við erlenda hermenn á stríðsárunum voru í reynd stúlkur um og undir lögaldri. Lög um eftirlit með ungmennum og framkvæmd þeirra í gegnum ungmennaeftirlit og ungmennadómstól eru skoðuð með tilliti til þeirra barnaverndarlaga sem giltu á stríðsárunum og skyldur barnaverndarnefnda í ástandsmálum eru greindar. Störf ungmennaeftirlitsins og ungmennadómstólsins eru skoðuð í þeim tilgangi að meta hversu vel þau falla að markmiðum lagasetningarinnar auk þess sem þau eru borin saman við störf sambærilegra stofnana erlendis. Í greininni er velt upp þeirri spurningu upp að hvaða marki ástandið hafi verið barnaverndarmál og hvort nota megi hugtakið „vandræðaunglingar“ eins og erlendir fræðimenn hafa fjallað um það til að varpa frekara ljósi á afstöðu ráðamanna til ungmennanna sem voru undir eftirliti. Þar er sjónum meðal annars beint að togstreitunni milli barnaverndar- og refsisjónarmiða í framkvæmd laga um eftirlit með ungmennum.
The ‘Situation Girl’ as a Juvenile Delinquent: Law Enforcement, Protection and Surveillance in Times of War On 10 May 1940, British forces occupied Iceland. Almost immediately, public debate about women and teenage girls displaying inappropriate behavior towards the soldiers sprang up and all contact between Icelandic women and foreign soldiers became suspect. The public discourse led to the enactment of a new Youth Surveillance Act. The act was meant to deal with the ‘the Situation’, as relationships between Icelandic women and soldiers were referred to, by extending the time a young person could be under the supervision of the local child-welfare committee. The act also provided for the establishment of a juvenile court and the first state-run homes for juvenile delinquents to deal with the Situation. The act was worded in such a way as to make it possible to assume that it should apply to girls and boys equally but, in reality, the new law was used almost exclusively to police the interactions of girls with soldiers. In addition to the provisions of the act, a special Youth Surveillance Agency was established within the Reykjavik Police Department. This article deals with the relationship between these new government agencies and the child-welfare system already in place at the start of the occupation, as well as asking if the girls involved could be classified as juvenile delinquents, as Joan Sangster, Lisa Pasco and others have used the term. The Youth Surveillance Act was enforced rather harshly in Reykjavik, where the juvenile court ruled in 42 cases that were brought by the Youth Surveillance Agency involving girls who were thought to have inappropriate relationships with soldiers. These cases were investigated by the Agency and, it seems, without involvement from the child-welfare committee. This lack of involvement seems to have led to a distinct lack of child-welfare measures taken to deal with the Situation and enforced a punitive approach. A majority of the girls brought to court were in a precarious social position, as they were usually young, working-class and without family support in the city. This was often the case with delinquent girls in the English-speaking world where female delinquency was defined by the authorities based on racialized and classist ideas of female sexuality. The article therefore finds that the Icelandic ‘Situation girl’ has a lot in common with the delinquent girls of other countries and can be viewed as such.